What does international shipment mean ? International freight refers to the transportation from one country to another country by one or more modes of transportation, which is accompanied by international trade. Generally, it is international freight, but general international logistics also includes express delivery, and international freight does not include international express delivery. International freight is generally container transport, and air transport, rail transport
Basic concepts of international cargo transportation
In terms of its delivery objects, transportation is divided into cargo transportation and passenger transportation, and in terms of cargo transportation, it can be divided into two categories: domestic cargo transportation and international cargo transportation. International cargo transportation is the transportation between countries and countries, countries and regions.
International cargo transportation can be divided into international trade materials transportation and non-trade materials (such as exhibits, personal luggage, office supplies, foreign aid materials, etc.) transportation. Since the transportation of non-trade materials in international cargo transportation is often only the incidental business of the trade material transportation department, international cargo transportation is usually called international trade transportation. From a country’s point of view, it is foreign trade transportation, referred to as foreign trade transportation.
In international trade, the price of the commodity includes the freight rate of the commodity, and the freight rate of the commodity occupies a large proportion in the price of the commodity, generally speaking, it accounts for about 10%; in some commodities, it accounts for 30%. ~40%. The freight rate of a commodity, like the production price of a commodity, fluctuates around the value as the market supply and demand change.
The freight rate of the commodity enters the international market for exchange along with the physical form of the commodity, and the change of the freight rate of the commodity directly affects the change of the price of the commodity in international trade. The main object of international cargo transportation is international trade commodities, so it can be said that international cargo transportation is also a kind of international trade, except that what it is used for exchange is not a commodity in physical form, but a special commodity, namely goods displacement. The so-called commodity freight rate is its exchange price.
Ways of international cargo transportation
Most of the imported and exported goods in international cargo transportation are transported by sea, a small part is transported by railway or road, and some goods are transported by pipeline or post. With the development of the aviation industry, the volume of cargo transported by air has increased significantly in recent years, and the types and scope of cargo are also expanding. Traders should choose the appropriate mode of transportation according to the actual situation of their goods.
Ocean cargo transportation
Ocean cargo transportation is a way of using ships to transport goods between ports in different countries and regions through sea lanes. Great features. At present, more than two-thirds of the total volume of international trade, and 90% of my country’s total import and export goods are transported by sea.
Ocean cargo transportation also includes liner transportation and charter transportation
(1) Liner Transport
Also known as regular ship transportation, it means that ships are transported to and from fixed routes and ports according to a fixed sailing schedule, and freight is charged at a relatively fixed freight rate.
(2) Charter Transport
Also known as irregular ship transportation, it means that the ship owner signs a charter contract with the cargo owner, and arranges the ship’s route, port of call, type of cargo, and voyage time according to the requirements of the lessee (cargo owner). The rent is also agreed upon by both parties in the charter contract according to the charter market.
Air cargo transportation
Although air cargo started late, it has developed extremely rapidly. One of the reasons is that it has many advantages that other modes of transportation cannot match. To sum up, the main characteristics of air cargo transportation are: fast delivery, not affected by ground conditions, deep inland areas, safety, and accuracy.
Rail freight transport
Railway transportation has the characteristics of high safety, fast transportation speed, long transportation distance, large transportation capacity, low transportation cost, etc., and has the advantages of low pollution, great potential and not affected by weather conditions.
International Postal Shipping
The postal services of all countries in the world are handled by the state, and all of them also handle postal parcel cargo transportation business. By signing agreements and conventions among countries, a global postal transportation network is formed to make the delivery of postal parcels unimpeded. International postal transportation is suitable for the delivery of light-weight and small-volume goods(DHL,Fedex,UPS)
The characteristics of international cargo transportation
International cargo transportation is a long-distance transportation with many intermediate links
International cargo transportation is the transportation between countries and countries, countries and regions, and the transportation distance is generally longer. In the process of transportation, it is often necessary to use a variety of means of transportation, through multiple loading and unloading, exchange of different transportation methods, and passing through different countries and regions, with many intermediate links.
International cargo transportation involves a wide range of complex and changeable situations
During the international transportation of goods, it is necessary to deal with cargo owners, transportation departments, commodity inspection agencies, insurance companies, banks, customs and various intermediate agents in different countries and regions. At the same time, due to different policies and laws in various countries and regions, different financial and monetary systems, and differences in trade and transportation habits and operating practices, coupled with changes in various political, economic and natural conditions, there will be relatively large impacts on international cargo transportation. big impact.
The timeliness of international cargo transportation is particularly strong
The competition in the international market is very fierce, and commodity prices are changing rapidly. If the import and export goods cannot be transported to the destination in time, it is likely to cause major economic losses; if some fresh, perishable and seasonal commodities cannot be delivered to the destination on time for sale , the resulting economic loss may be even more serious. For this reason, the shipment date and delivery date of the goods are listed as the shipment terms of the trade contract. Whether the goods can be shipped on time is directly related to the issue of honoring the contract and keeping promises, and will have a huge impact on the development of trade and transportation.
The risk of international cargo transportation is relatively high
Due to the long transportation distance, many intermediate links, wide range of involvement, complex and changeable situations, and strong timeliness, international cargo transportation has relatively high risks. In order to pass on the risk losses during transportation, various import and export goods and transportation All tools need to apply for international cargo transportation insurance.
International cargo transport involves issues of international relations
In the process of organizing international cargo transportation, it is often necessary to have extensive contacts with foreign countries. This contact is not only economic, but also involves international political issues. The handling of various transportation business issues, often involving international relations issues, is a highly policy-oriented work. Therefore, those engaged in international cargo transportation must not only have economic concepts, but also have national policy concepts.